|March 26, 2016|
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours ( TNM ) is a cancer staging system that describes the extent of cancer in a patient???s body.
The TNM staging system for all solid tumors was devised by Pierre Denoix between 1943 and 1952, using the size and extension of the primary tumor, its lymphatic involvement, and the presence of metastases to classify the progression of cancer.
TNM is developed and maintained by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) to achieve consensus on one globally recognised standard for classifying the extent of spread of cancer. The TNM classification is also used by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). In 1987, the UICC and AJCC staging systems were unified into a single staging system.
Most of the common tumors have their own TNM classification. Not all tumors have TNM classifications, e.g., there is no TNM classification for brain tumors.
The general outline for the TNM classification is below. The values in parentheses give a range of what can be used for all cancer types, but not all cancers use this full range.
Mandatory parameters ("T", "N", and "M")
Use of an "X" instead of a number or other suffix means that the parameter was not assessed.
For the T, N and M parameters exist subclassifications for some cancer-types (e.g. T1a, Tis , N1i)
Some of the aims for adopting a global standard are to:
Since the number of combinations of categories is high, combinations are grouped to stages for better analysis.
The latest version of TNM is TNM7, published in October 2009 and set to take effect in January 2010.
GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "TNM classification".
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